A common challenge is to find duplicate files, such as photos or music or documents. When available disk space becomes tight then it’s also a good time for a clean up.
A simple trick to find duplicates is to calculate a MD5 signature or hash for a file, and to the use that signature to find duplicates of the file, knowing that in general a mapping of the contents of a file to a signature is a unique mapping - the signature is different for different files.
The fdupes package provides the fdupes command that incorporates the use of the MD5 signature within a more thorough pipeline to guarantee the files are duplicates. The pipeline for checking for duplicate files begins with a file size comparison, a partial MD5 signature comparison, a full MD5 signature comparison, and then a byte-to-byte comparison.
--delete option fdupes will begin an
interactive session to list all duplicated files in the current
.. With the
--recurse option duplicates are searched for
in the current directory and below. The interactive session will list
all duplicates and provide options for their resolution. This is a
quick and effective way to reduce duplicated files:
fdupes --delete --recurse .
The interactive session will look something like the below example:
Set 40 of 1919: [+] ./Camera/PXL_20230307_025903772.MP.jpg [-] ./Camera/20230307_155903_00.jpg Set 41 of 1919: [ ] ./Camera/20210812_151633_00.jpg [ ] ./Camera/PXL_20210812_051633163.PORTRAIT.jpg Set 42 of 1919: [ ] ./Camera/20200516_141257_00.jpg [ ] ./Camera/IMG_20200516_141257.jpg ( Preserve files [1 - 2, all, help] ): Ready Set 41 of 1919
You can choose to preserve the first of the duplicated files by
1, the second by
2, or preserve
all files. In the above
1 was typed followed by
Enter. When a selection has been
made you can type
prune to perform the actions which will delete the
files marked for pruning with the
The interactive session of fdupes provides quite a
comprehensive set of commands to mark duplicates automatically. The
functionality can be reviewed through the
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